‘DAEIOU’ and its internal meaning

During the month of November, 1873, the saint gave a long sermon after hoisting the flag in front of Siddhivalagam by clearly instructing the audience as to the type of work that should be undertaken by them in future. Some of the excerpts are reproduced below:

“Behold. Please don’t aim at any religion as the deity revealed therein is only a model and the real truth has not been disclosed there transparently.

If we begin to study them after taking much pains, in the short span of time allowed before us, we will be benefited to a very small extent and thereby miss the opportunity of living eternally with a Blissful life.

The time is very short. For all the above things, I now stand as the sole witness. You very well know the deepest faith I once had in Saivism. That aim has now vanished. The reason as to why I had such deep faith in saivism at that time will only reveal the meager knowledge possessed by me then.

The God has elevated me to the highest plane now. This is solely due to my complete surrender. If you adopt the same path, you will also get the best benefit. It is not the religious fervor that has taken me to this height. That which has helped me to achieve this distinction is only His Grace. The merciful deed of the Grace alone has installed me in this super plane”.


The saint has affirmed by stating that Dayavu (Grace) alone has taken him to this unascenbdable height.

It is now our part to know the real meaning of Dayavu more vividly and this is explained below.

The Tamil world Dayavu is mostly known as love, mercy, grace, etc. But it has got a wider meaning.

When we commence out new life from the Wisdom temple, the light ever glowing from the cerebra spinal cavity, will give us new thoughts and ideas.

Once the expression of Dayavu is implemented through one’s thoughts, words and deeds, it is sure that he will felt more elucidation.

On the basis of the experience gained, we shall get at the real truth now.

The letter Da-î in Tamil is the 7th consonant and is considered to be the abode of the Lord in the seventh stage of the human body (Niradharam) from where one has to realise his existence and abide with God with ever lasting happiness.

Ya-ò signifies the existence of the God in the soul form of the human body expressing the soul and sense knowledge.

Thus the combination of these two letters îò represents the God in the human form to lead a divine life in the world.

As regards the letter vu - represents the world with all its animate and inanimate objects which have been created for the sole purpose of gaining experience and in the long run to achieve the goal of immortality.

Further the letter ‘vu’ à is placed as the fifth vowel, depicting the penta powers of the God. As a significance of this, the human being has got five fingers in each of his hands and legs.

From the above, it can well be inferred that Dayavu is the real form of God and its experience will make one to live with Godhead.

For non-Tamils it is not easy to make them to understand the real meaning of Dayavu, and for this purpose, a new word has been coined in English as ‘DAEIOU’ and it is hoped that it will serve the purpose.

This word contains one consonant and five vowels.

Everyone knows that vowel is the life form of the alphabet and consonant denotes the body form.

The letter ‘D’ in the upturned form represents the head of the human being where the Inner Light is ever kept glowing.

From this light, the penta powers of Porul, Kiriya, Gnana, Yoga and Arul (representing the five Vowels) are spreading around to produce in the universe all atoms, energies, Intelligence, Omni-Soul power and Universal Blissful life of God - man.

Thus by this Daeiou representation, one can realise the Eternal Blessed life of Bliss and live in this world for ever in an immortal stage.

This bliss-giving life is a must to the whole mankind.
This is neither a religious nor an irreligious life in nature.
Also it is not a material or spiritual life of the famous saints and rishis of yore.
So, no one should take this as a challenge to their present life.

Without any prejudice and religious chauvinism and casteism, everyone has to extend his ‘Daeiou’ life from the Divine centre within him.

When the life blossoms from the innermost, all the truth will come to light, which will aid and guide the humanity to make the life completely blissful.

The key of Grace is necessary to open the lock of fetters and it has been distinctly styled as vast compassion.

In other words, one has to offer his compassionate life to God in order to get himself transformed as God.

Let this Goal of Daeiou life be achieved through the munificence of the Omnigrace by one and all and adore our Lord who is all in all.




GOD ALMIGHTY is revealed to the world through the Divine Soul of perfect man. It has been acknowledged that God is Omnipresent. Omnipotent and Omniscient. in other words He is Sath, Chith and Ananda or ‘Satchitananda’. Let us try to understand Him through His Omnigrace.

First, we must know that One Supreme God is eternally existing and bringing out Himself from the innermost. The Outermost boundless space filled Form is external, while the innermost is to be experienced by His Gracious knowledge that Blossoms in the Soul of perfect man.

What is Soul? Indeed, the Soul is but a small particle of Divine Form Itself, This Soul-realization dawns in man only when he really comes to live in the Soul abode itself. Before reaching this knowledge of Soul plane, one is to pass on all the material, physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual planes. This spiritual knowledge comes out only in the human life. That too at the full fledged state. To get this spiritual knowledge the man has been living on this earth practically for long time. In his sensuous life on material and physical planes, what he obtained is only an illusive experience through his deluded mind. He reached the soul plane only through some inward concentrated contemplation.

From this divine soul plane a person was able to get some intuitional yogic power, which made him to perform many miraculous wonders. All these spiritual powers and attainments made him to live a philosophical or religious life and finally to merge in and disappear from this worldly stage. This end was thought as the salvation or emancipation of the human life. Till now this world is following these ways and means.

A new gracious light of Truth lit up in the Soul has brought out the revelation in true Divine persons. When the Divinity is observed from the Soul abode itself, the man is able to find all the defects of all the past life’s attainment. All the powers of faiths, beliefs, rites, rituals and the achievements of yogis and present day parapsychologists have not shown the right path way for man to attain Godhead.

In fact, the universal God Himself is now acknowledged as the Soul of man and accordingly he is intended to live for ever in oneness of Him. Man is not different from or alien to God and he is not brought up to this earth to suffer and die at last. Till now the man was holding himself as a perishable bodily being, and therefore he taught that he must follow some path of virtue, and finally he should relinquish the mortal call to get into eternal rest in God. Now this is found to be not at all true and also not the real command of God to man. Without knowing little about our Divine Nature we are coming and passing away aimlessly.

The All merciful God Himself has now made us to know to live in Oneness of Him. We feel now the true practical meaning of non-dualism or Advaitha. This real Divinity of man was first revealed in the Soul form of Our Saint Ramalingar of Vadalur. By the grace of Arutperunjothi, he realized and lived in extending the Divinity in practical sense from the Inner abode to fill his whole being. Thus he has now become the Inner Light blossoming and filling in him completely. After the Blessed and Blissful experience, he brought out the Temple of true Wisdom (Tamil – Sathiya Gnana Sabhai) the free Food Institution for fellow people (Tamil – Sathiya Dharma Saalai) and Mansion of Divine attainment (Tamil – Siddhi Valaaham). By these we are all aided and guided for that higher attainment.

God Supreme of infinite Grace is ever One and one only, And He alone is working through all souls in all places at all times. So, He exposed from within the soul of Ramalinga Swamigal, in the meantime, He has really come out in the Souls of all. But because of our unripeness and wordily attachments, we are not turning inwardly to make our life anew, Most of the people are all running after sensuous life of deluded enjoyments and pleasures.

This humble self turned to the call of the Vallalar now. A very small fraction of his truth has dawned on me and this has brought me here to reveal all these truths. In the first instance I was initiated to the place of wisdom (Tamil – Gnana Kottam) on an auspicious day in May, 1929. From that time itself, I was helped by the head of the Divine spot to move on in the progressive path, without turning to the other side. In the following three decades, the entire time was spent in devotion and meditation to get true enlightenment. In these thirty long years I live in so called hibernation (seclusion) along with the Swamigal. In 1953, the Divine guide or Guru merged in Trance of Samadhi.

From that moment, the Supreme Lord began to work to the upliftment of all souls coming in and around me. The Arutperunjothi revealed through Arutprakasam has become the Supreme “D A E I O U” extending from the innermost of each and every soul to make any aspirant Eternal Blissful. With the mission of indwelling DAEIOU I have been commissioned to work here and elsewhere. With this divine intention on the sixtieth year of my initiated life, and to celebrate the true commemorative Souvenir of the Satya Gnana Sabapathy Swamigal, this small book is released.

Let this small publication bring enlightenment to all devout souls. If any aspirant really undertakes this Divine Life of ‘DAEIOU’ it will help him to live an everlasting Life of Bliss.

This book has been divided into two parts, with five headings for each. In the first half of this publication, the work of divinity in the creation of this world till date has been dealt with in detail. The old Siddhas and Divine personages were all put on the fringe outside the Soul abode, and hence they were able to get many Divine achievements, but not endowed to live in Oneness of Him to lead the humanity with the Eternal life of Bliss. Such a never ending life is now sponsored by the Divine Arutprakasam in the Inner Light form of DAEIOU. This aspect has been dealt with second part of this Book.

In all the annual Guru pujas, some inner divine instructions are put forth in the form of a lecture (talk) which lasted for an hour. Subsequent to the rendering Prasadams are offered to all those attending the functions. Though many have attended this annual feature they have taken this as a routine in their life and not keen in realizing the truth and getting into the path of DAEIOU to gain the Blissed Life of Bliss. To implement this life’s intention more vigorously, this booklet has been brought out now. May this enlighten all who come into the Inner Sanctum Sancturam of Divine ‘DAEIOU’.

Our DAEIOU God is not the outcome of mere imagination or speculation. It is the true revelation of natural Divinity, eternally working from the Innermost of all. Though this whole space-filled unimaginable body is One inseparable form, it is fully realizable through the Soul of a perfect man. He is acknowledging that One Supreme Divine Being governs the whole universe from within him. And like this, He can be experienced through any Divinised developed Soul. Hence One Single God is practically experienced by innumerable souls every where at any time. To the outer world it will appear as if One God has become many. No, He is ONE only, but by His Omnigrace attribute, He is expressing through many souls for the purpose of bringing out His final Truth in a full-fledged perfect man of Grace. He will be known to the world as God man of Eternal Blissful life. Such a Blessed life of endless Bliss may come upon numberless souls in all times to come. This One God experience will be practicable by each one separately because that is the Grace attribute of Him living simultaneously one in all.

So far all the men of wisdom lived upon this planet with some higher knowledge of Divinity by which they were able to obtain some occult power to perform many miraculous deeds. The old siddhas of orient lived for a long life with many wonderful attainment. The western parapsychologists acquired some power through Mesmerism, Hypnotism, Telepathy, Clairvoyance, Clair-audience, psychometry and premonition and these were demonstrated to the public.

All the above achievements of all were not taken to heart by the true man of Grace Divine. Therefore our Swamigal though obtained the occult power very easily-yet he never wished to be a Master of spiritual Scientist in the public eye, he only earnestly wished to obtain the full Grace of Almighty to put all on the higher plane of Bliss. The supreme Blissful eternal life to man is to be sought from the Innermost. To this new divine Life, one has to realize the Soul entity of God and man, as one Being. From the Divine Soul particle alone, we have been evolved into this world to live and got all the experiences of inner and outer life. In our life from the sensuous plane, we were unable to get a true Blissful life of permanency. Such a permanent Divine Blessed life is to be lived from the Soul abode only. Because the Soul atom is really one and the same, the infinite form of both God and Man are also one and the same. At the time of perfection of DAEIOU in the human life, this Divine Truths revealed to the man of full development. In this final stage of DAEIOU Life, both the inner and outer become One endless Life continuum. This is the continuous life of Divine Bliss in the Universe.

Nowadays, I am devoting the entire time trying to make the aspiring souls to understand the truth of Divine Soul. When we comprehend our real divine Self, we will be set up on that Soul plane from where alone, one is to be living an endless Blissful Blessed Life. This kind of Blessed Life only is to bring peace and plenty to the whole humanity. The entire world community should come to live under the Blessed Life of Divine DAEIOU. This is the only aim and the constant prayer of the humble soul.

The Author.



(The Shrine of True Wisdom)

Omni grace God Infinite is ever present in the boundless space of our limitless universe. With his full power, He is revealing Himself from the Innermost of everything. In each and every expression of Him, He is expressing only a very little amount of His power and attribute.

In the beginning, the whole space was supposed to be vacant, but in reality it is not so, it is eternally filled with the Divine force of OMNIGRACE, which is being implemented to evolve into this multifarious universe.

Only for the purpose of bringing out the hidden Truth of Divinity, all the universal activities have been set in motion. We misconceive space as a void, it is ether with its electronic force and this forms important elements which are numerous in science, but all grouped into five elements in our conception. These elements have served out planet to manifest as all animate and inanimate things and human lives. In human life alone, the Divinity has to get evolved to supreme knowledge into the full development of inner core of MAN.

There are vast unknown regions in the material, physical, mental and spiritual planes. Man with his power of mind has the potential power to probe into them. The Eternal Divine Soul of man is revealed to a certain extent commensurate with his inner development and the outer life of stainless Live-Divine. In the past, the knowledge of Divine Soul was not clearly comprehended, but through meditation and yogic practice, some spiritual powers and attainments were obtained from the lower nervous centers and from the brain centre.

Many people were of the view that the soul was seated in the heart centre, but it is now discovered to be functioning from the head centre. By the grace of Arutperunjothi the plain Truth of Soul and God is now coming to light by the practical experience of Thiru Arutprakasa Vallalar of Vadalur in Tamil Nadu. By this Omni gracious experience, all the doubtful ideas of God and Soul have been cleared now.

God, the Omnipresent, is eternally existing infinitely, that means, He is ever present both in the smallest particle, and in the limitless universe. Though He is complete, both in the minutest spot and in the largest space. He comes to light in the mid head, where it has been kept lit up from first moment of the creation of the human embryo in the womb of the mother. This light particle is not a newly created one, but it has come to be embedded from its unseen presence to a cognizable state. From the very same Light particle, every person is getting all his life energy, intellect as well as natural and supernatural powers.

By the reasoning power, we may confirm that this light particle of Divinity is the same Divine Light filling the whole space. It is revealed by His Omni grace that One Supreme God alone, though indivisible in His form, is coming to enlighten the small spot in a person. This particular particle of the supreme God Himself is the soul of a person. Hence, this soul particle is really the form of God placed on the head of the human being for his realization.

This Soul-atom evolved into the human being, is only a manifestation of God, from the innermost of ourselves. Thus when we realize our Divine Soul-Truth we have no separate existence except Him only. This Divine Truth of ourselves was not till now known and experienced by us because of our worldly sensuous life. Only when we transcend to the Divine Soul plane, we are able to know this Truth.

The physically conscious man was completely unaware of his Divine side, and so, in his sensuous life what all he experienced was of little value and the end was nothing but a miserable death. The life of a philosophical by minded man of soul-knowledge too, was not of much value. Because his soul knowledge was false. He thought that he was put in bodily bondage and this had to be cut off when only he would be freed to live a soul life.

We are certain that this bodily presence is to make us live the Divine soul-life in this world. Without this personal life, the Divinity can never be experienced. Therefore to live a Divine Life of Bliss, the physical body is essential and we have to begin a new life of grace from the soul place itself. With this higher purpose in view, our Sathya Gnana Sabai, the abode of true Wisdom is now opened in us and this abode of True Wisdom is symbolically established in Vadalur by our Vallalar.

The new era of Divine Omni grace began on the fine morning of 24th May, 1867. It was a time of gracious period to get enlighten both in the Inner World of Soul and the outer world of earth and heaven. At that time Swami Ramalingam (known as Thiru Arutprakasa Vallalar) was solemnized by the Almighty, with Arutperunjothi for the Deathless Life of Bliss.

After his inner realization, a shrine of Grace was planned to be constructed, at Vadalur, on a large area of elevated land thirty kilometers from Chidambaram. This place is the only altar where one can come across the one Supreme God of the whole universe. Here alone, universe (the bodily being of man) and the greater universe of boundless space. By having Dharsan (seeing) of the Divine Light in the shrine of Wisdom at Vadalur, an aspiring soul can get enlightenment in the Inner shrine of Wisdom.

To realize the Divine Light in the Innermost, we have to traverse the four stages namely sensuous body, mind, life and soul. All these stages are depicted in the Temple by the octagonal structure and in the inner central sanctuary with seven colored screens in the front of the Light.

At the time of Thai poosam (in the month of January or February), the aspirant realizes, the Inner Light or Omni grace along with the rising sun and setting full-moon on the eastern and western horizons. There are significant representations of pure golden and silver rays on right and left.

By this effulgence we are led into the oneness of Arutperunjothi in the shrine of Wisdom, from where we have to live the Divine life of universal Love.

By means of any other religious practices, temple worship and yoga practices, one could not live a blessed life of Bliss in the world. By observing the new doctrine of Living, the Divine life from the Inner-most, all can get all goodness in themselves. Therefore nobody should think that this shrine of Wisdom is intended to a certain set of people alone or it belongs to a sectarian group. This should not be considered as a place for mere sectarian worship.

The whole humanity is one community. The Eternal Supreme Force of Almighty is working both in and out for the final Goal of Blissful life. The one Supreme God Almighty is bringing out His whole Truth to the present world only now and here. In the course of the universal permeation, the Truth of God was being developed to come out from the Innermost of every particle, though God is ever in a state of fullness or full development.

His existence power and practical experience in life is yet to be made known in the universe. And, for this, inner divine is actively implementing itself to be shown in the creation of the world. In all the material, physical, vital, mental and spiritual developments, that Divinity has been gradually growing to reach the final stage of Divine Grace for our Self-realization. Now in this human life, the Gracious God has come to self realization viz., that both man and God are one and the same in him.

All powerful Omnipresent God has manifested from the Innermost Soul-abode in the form of a developed man of gracious wisdom. Thus, this gracious wisdom is now experienced as a true altar of Him.

The soul in man was considered to be a separate entity other than himself, a physical being; and for obtaining the Divine Soul life, it was believed that man had to be relieved from the bodily bondage. But by relinquishing the body, the soul loses all the life and experience and there would be no blissful life after death. So if the soul needs a practical experience, then it must be given a new human life of Divine knowledge.

By the Omni grace of God, we have now come to the understanding of our Oneness with God in the soul-form. This Divine Soul-self is found located in the mid-head over Medulla-oblongata. To live a life from this gracious soul plane, we have to rise from the sensuous bodily stage to that of higher level life.

Our outer Wisdom Temple of Vadalur is pointing out the Inner Truth with which one inseparable Divine life is to be realizable. This Divine Life is intended to be given to everybody who has come to live upon this earth. This kind of Godly life is common to all; it is not attached to any particular religion or to a particular sect only. All, the atheists or theists, religious or non-religious, materialist or spiritualist are entitled to get in contact with Inner Light of Omni grace-Arutperunjothi from where a new reverence for life makes the worldly life blissful.

All the people of the world in any walk of life are in need of a true happy life upon this earth. To achieve the real demand of contented and blissful life, the old and new ways and means have not aided and guided the mankind towards the true Goal of Blessed life, but through the Omni grace of Arutperunjothi directed from the shrine of Wisdom, the whole humanity will reap the harvest-the Goal.

Our Vallalar of Vadalur, the first God chosen man of Grace by living the gracious life from the Inner shrine of Wisdom, has been awarded the deathless Divine Life of Bliss. Indeed the Eternal Supreme God, though omnipresent was not recognizable till now in His pristine and pure stage, because of His impersonal Form. But now, He Himself has filled the Form of Vallalar to live here in all His Personal spiritual and impersonal Forms for the purpose of bestowing his grace on mankind at their different stages of spiritual development.

Vallalar known to the world as a human body is now completely Divinized. In other words, the Supreme God Himself has assumed the triple divine form of Arutprakasar to govern all the universe for eternity. The One Omnipresent God of Eternity is now recognizable in this full Divinity in the form of Vallalar. This God-Man is the supreme among the Divine Masters. Because the others simply merged in God and disappeared while Vallalar divinized in its earthly body itself. Therefore the whole humanity will be profiled by this unique guidance of Arutprakasar.

The Divine Flag of Omni gracious God of Infinite Light stands hoisted in the compound of the Wisdom shrine at the left side of the main entrance. The gracious Divine experience is depicted in the white part of the flag which is three times the size of the yellow part. The yellow portion is above, and the white part is below. God in Trinity is reckoned differently by many men of Divine knowledge of various religious faiths. In our bodily form, the gross, subtle and caus body, life and soul (or) Spirit Holy Ghost, Son and Father and the three sixes in St.John's Revelation and in Tamil, three sets of six consonants in each. All these are to represent our flag of Arutperunjothi. The full Divine Mantram is like this.

Arutperunjothi Arutperunjothi Thaniperungkarunai Arutperunjothi

Now, there are three Arutperunjothis of six vowel, consonants each and a single Thaniperungkarunai of seven vowel consonants. This is the one Supreme God in the Oneness of our Self. This Oneness of the Soul is realizable. This realization is the life-eternal from the Inner sanctuary of our Sathya Gnana Sabai. By the Omni grace of Thaniperungkarunai the Blissful life is to be evolved from the innermost to an ever lasting Divine Life of 25 experiences in all as represented by the 25 vowel consonants, and 25 in Tamil as cU (form)

An easy method of Arutperunjothi Attainment.

By studying the Inner Light of grace with the guidance of this book and by contemplating on the soul God in our head centre we can reach the stage of feeling our Divine Soul Self. Indeed we should not have sensuous desires and hatreds in the day to day life. By extending the Divine Love or "DAEIOU" from our Soul-abode, we can make all our life Divinized. In a symbolic diagram of Daeiou, the new method of Divine Truth is made easy.

The Tamil "jet" three letter word is expanded into a six letter word of "DAEIOU" in English. In the symbol from the basic stratum of DAEIOU, the Divine Force or Sakthi rises up to blossom in us with five different forces. They are Porul (Atom), Kiriya (Energies), Gnana (Inspiration), Yoga (Omnipotence), and Arul (Unigrace). In course of Inner life, all the above five forces constitute to make our life immortalized to live in Bliss for ever. Our Inner Divine centre is in the form of "D" up-turned. From the centre of this "D" the five forces represented by the five vowels of English are led to fusion of our DAEIOU.

Our body-D is the resultant outcome of the ABC of the outer universe. Within this D-body, we have been endowed with the Penta Divine force. This force emerges gradually to make us Divine men to live in Bliss eternally.

This book comes out to spread the Divinity in life, mind and body. It makes the whole human being into Divine Form of universal Blissful life. Therefore this is neither a religious book of any sect nor is this an art or science book of the mundane life. This also is not a book on yoga. You may take this as a book of Divine grace which is common to all for all times and climes. May this bring Bliss to All.




Mind makes the man. He is the only most wonderful creation in this universe. Through heredity and environment the man has developed very much on the mental sides. He is approaching the most powerful aspect in the innermost of everything.

The atomic energy from the atom is an external discovery of the modern scientist. In the same manner the Soul power or atomic energy from the soul atom itself has been realized and experienced to certain degree by the yogis in our land (India).We have known their attainments to some extent. The yogi got some soul power by which he performed some wonder acts and gained some fame and finally merged in. He thought the life of merging in and renouncing the outer one is intended for him. By doing so he lost body his life along with all his experience of the Divine Self. The material scientist is nearing the inner force of material atom. His attainment is known to the world now. When the material is turns inwardly then he can discover the soul force in the innermost. To this inner research, mind must become pure and the spirit of divine love should be developed.

Now the man is to make a new life from the inner soul abode, because he acknowledges the inner Divine Self and himself as one and the same. It is the eternal Truth that Divine Self only is expressing out from the innermost of all atoms in the whole universe. Hence, when self comes to live in the world through the unselfish man, his outer body too becomes divine form and lives eternally. This is the experience of our Thiru Arut Prakasa Vallalar of Vadalur in South India. This Eternal life to man is to be confirmed to every one by the Grace of the Indweller. This endless life to man is the right of Divine Grace Infinite. So death is not because intended born to live man he is for Eternal Life.

The Author,
Sathiya Gnana Kottam,
Dindigul (South India) INDIA.



Date of Birth -19.11.1910 (Saadhaarana Varudam, Kaarthigai Maadham 4th day) Saturday, Thiruvaadhirai Star.

1. Dhayavu Sathiya Gnana Kottam, Dindigul
2. Dhayavu Aalayam, Chinnalappatti
3. Dhayavu Nool Veliyeettu Arakkattalai, Dindigul
4. Dhayavu Aalayam, Nagal Nagar, Dindigul
5. Arutperunjothi Dhayavu Aalayam, Ramanathapuram
6. Arutperunjothi Dhayavu Aalayam, Ponnagaram, Dindigul

Date of Siddhi - 6.4.2006 Paarthiba Aandu, Panguni Month, 23rd day, Thursday, Star –Poosam.

He has had the unique privilege of having the darshan of VALLALAR twice. In one of the darshans Vallalar asked him to propagate the ideals of 'DAEIOU' and 'ANAGAM'.

To Visit His Place

Phone: 0451 - 2429912.

Dhayavu Nool Veliyeettu Arakkattalai,
Dhayavu Sathiya Gnana Kottam,
No.4/12, Nagasamy Iyer Lane,
East Car Street,
Dindigul - 624 001.
Tamilnadu, INDIA.